brettI08: Editing & Sound

posted on 23 Nov 2012 14:50 by uncommon-nonsense in brett

Brett 8: Editing & Sound


Grammar of Editing:

how does editing work as part of film's signifying

major tradition of editing

central codes & conventions of editing


*Art of putting shots together


Grammar of Editing 1:


Undecided Soviet Montage Theory:

(1920s Marxist dialectic)

thesis + antithesis = synthesis


-The Kuleshov Effect

putting two shots creat new signified effect


Undecided Einsensteinian Montage

(Sergei Einsenstein (1898 – 1948)

    theory & practice of montage as inherently collisional


    5 Modes of Einsensteinian Montage


  1. Metric Montage: based on measurement (calculated no. Of shot or per how many shots)

  2. Rhythmic Montage: based on rhythm/ visual pattern (มีจังหวะช่วยเพิ่ม tension, music)

  3. Tonal Montage: based on emotional tone/mood ช่วยบิ้วอารมณ์

  4. Over tonal/ Associational Montage: interplay of preceding three

  5. Intellectual Montage: provoke intellectual synthesis (film to teach politics)



Grammar of Editing 2:

continuity of editing seek to ensure maximum spatial & temporal continuity across shots & thus promotes & increased sense of realism

ตัดต่อให้ดู flow

audience unconscious of shot editing


Rules of Continuity Editing

  • Descending Shot Scale

      from longer to closer

      start with an establishing shot (master shot)

      reiterate with reestablishing shots


  • 180 Degree Rule

      all contiguous shot must be filmed from one axis of action


  • Reverse Field Structure

      shot/reverse shot (aka. Counter shot)

      eye line match


  • 30 Degree Rule

      camera position must be less than 30d between shots to avoid “jump cut” effect


  • Ellipses

cut = simultaneity

dissolve = relatively short ellipse

fade = longer ellipses


  • Match on action

      action on shot A completed on shot B

  • Sound Bridge

      soundtrack keep continuity

  • Spatial Correspondences (Linking Space)

      cross-cutting (parallel montage)


      match cut aka graphic match




often overlooked --> crucial element of film

expressive element in its own right

always been integral & developed rich array of codes & conventions


3 Main Forms

  • dialogue

  • sound fx

  • music

Sound can be either:

diegetic/ non diegetic

synchronous/ non-synchronous aka direct

on-screen/ off screen

these elements are processed & mixed as part of film's sound design


Quality of film sound

technical: mono, stereo, multichannel

acoustic: volume, timbre, pitch, reverb, direction

relationship to image track: added realism, mood, characterization, punctuate a scene, counter-point


Film Music

music scoring = vital but complex

works to: define social & historical context

build characterization

evoke emotional tenor

scoring draws from multiple tradition of music

historically, hollywood hilm music = western classical Romanticism, aimed for emotional realism & textual unobtrusiveness (underscoring) invisible.