brettI10: Film & Ideology

posted on 25 Nov 2012 00:42 by uncommon-nonsense in brett directory Knowledge

Brett 10: Film & Ideology

 

Ideology

The network of ideas, beliefs & attitudes shared by members of a culture or social formation & used to order their sense of reality

-worldview, cosmology

Karl Marx: “The idea expression of the dominant material relationship = reality / relationship, the dominant material relationship grasp an idea”

 

Louis Althussure: “The ideology is the imaginary relation of individual to the real relatioin in which they live in”

 

Stuart Mall: “Maps of meaning for reading social life”

 

*อุดมคติ.

 

FOUR Fundamental Characteristics of Ideology

  1. ideology is productive

      --> ideology produces the significant in social idea. Althussure: ideology “appoints a world & a self”

  2. ideology is everywhere

      --> Hebridge: “ideology saturates everyday discourse in the form of common sense

  3. Ideology is inescapable

      --> we cannot live without it. Althussure: “There is no outside of ideology

  4. Ideology is heterogenous

      --> different or diverse


 

Raymond Williams: Ideology as a “field of competing discourse”

 

dominant --> residual --> emergent --> oppositional

 

emergent: new idea that starts to believe but not famous yet

ex. 200 years women did not have the right to vote

residual: old idea that people start to question fading away

to the emergent.


 

Ideology is produces through “CULTURE” & its myriad institution & foms

Louis Althussor: “ideology has a materiel existence....it always exist in an apparatus, & it's practice or practices”

 

คือ "อุดมคติ" หรือ "ค่านิยม" เหล่านี้ไม่ได้เกิดขึ้นมาเฉยๆแต่ว่ามีสิ่งที่เป็นตัวสร้างและ pass on อยู่ด้วย ซึ่งก็คือ ISA


 

Ideological State Apparatus (ISA)

state or government use many range of institution to create ideological through these institutions:

  1. education

  2. religion

  3. the family

  4. the legal system

  5. the political system

  6. mass media

  7. the arts

  8. trade union

 

 

Cinema & Ideology
as the popular mass media, cinema is an ISA

infused with ideology & work to repreduce & naturalized ideology in ways big & small, explicitly and implicitly

 

 

Film Propaganda

film that actively & consciously espouse & promote a particular cultural or social agenda (usually politic)

unlike propaganda, most films don't consciously seek to promote particular ideology

but still do same thing implicitly

ไม่ว่าจะตั้งใจหรือไม่ตั้งใจหนังแต่ละเรื่องก็สร้างค่านิยมบางอย่างขึ้นมาทั้งนั้น

 

 

Cinema reproduces ideology because it is cultural

Film maker inevitably draw from the ideas & values of their culture to tell stories & create world

 

ที่หนังมันสร้างค่านิยมเพราะมันเกิดมาจากวัฒนธรรม
คนที่สร้างหนังก็สร้างโดยอิงมาจากคัลเจอร์ของตัวเอง เอามาจาก ไอเดียและค่านิยมในสังคมของตัวเองเพื่อที่จะมาสร้างเรื่องราวและโลกของตัวละคร

 

They thus create an image of the world in their own image.

They create text that unwittingly but powerfully carry ideological perspective, assumption, belief at certain place & time.

Inevitably draws from social codes

 

Sometimes ideological perspectives embedded in a text may not be shared by all audiences

 

which leads to:

IDEOLOGICAL CLASH.

-trans-historical change

-trans-cultural differences

 

Ideological may differs in trans-cultural differences

EX. Disney's Song of the South ซึ่งเป็นแอนิเมชั่นที่ racist คือมีตัวละครเป็นคนดำสมัยยังเป็นทาส และในหนังก็แบบ ทำงานทาสๆอย่างมีความสุข อะไรงี้


 

Cinema & Eurocentrism

assumption of European/Western culture and people as normatice (dominant)

birth of cinema coincides with high western imperial

dominated from outset by neocolonialist Western nations

dominant cinema traditionally told Western Europe stories, organized around Western character, narrated from & for a western perspective

 

แบบ ยุโรปจะเป็นอะไรที่ ดอมิแน้นท์
มันเกิดมาจากว่า "ซีนีม่า" เนี่ยมันมีต้นกำเนิดมาจากพวกคนยุโรป ช่วงยุคโคโลเนียล ชอบคิดว่าคนขาวดีอย่างงู้นอย่างงี้ ยุโรปเจ๋งงั้นงี้

 

*Eurocentrism Binary Opposition:

West:
- safe

  • dominant

  • central

  • known

  • self

 

 

Asian:

  • unsafe

  • subordinate

  • marginal

  • unknown

  • other

 

White-Centrism

modern western media construct “whiteness” as a racial idea

white people create dominant image of world & don't quite see that they thus construct the world in their image

Many convention of mainstream film are overlaid with white-Centric ideology discourse

 

Movie Lighting

Hollywood developed specific system of lighting

designed to privilege & accentuate white figures

situated within Eurocentric ideological tradition that associate whiteness with light, purity, virtue

 

หนังชอบสร้างค่านิยมว่า "ขาวแล้วจะดี"
แบบพวกไลท์ติ้งในหนังก็ทำขึ้นมาเพื่อเสริมให้คนเล่นที่ขาวๆ
มันมาจากความคิดที่แบบ คิดว่า ขาว = บริสุทธ์ แสงสว่าง ความดีงาม

 

Cinema & Phallocentrism

assumption of masculinity and men as normative

 

อันนี้คือ ชายเป็นใหญ่

 

Cinema develops out of patriarchal society

Result: tends to assume & promote patriarchal ideology

male domination

sexism

heterocentrism

 

Lawra Mulvey: Visual Pleasure & Narrative Cinema

-landmark feminist critique of mainstream cinema as an ideological practice of phallocentrism

 

-organized cinema at every lever (eg. Narrative)

-female image is “cut to the measure of male desire”

-passive object availalbe for possession

-reward for male diegetic & spectatorial desire

-styled as erotic spectacle of/for male desire

“to-be-looked-at-ness”

 

Cinema relays all sorts of ideological beliefs:

  • race/ethnicity

  • gender/sexuality

  • nationality

  • religion

  • politics

  • cultural identity

  • kinship&family

  • class

  • age & generation

 

edit @ 25 Nov 2012 00:45:31 by uncommon-nonsense

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