Week 12: TV's Modes of Address
How a text or cultural form 'speaks' to its audience & by so doing, shapes identification & interpretation
is not always explicit, frequently implicit
content (subj. material)
form/style (language rhetoric)
Adresser/Adressee are discursive positions: not same as real people
real reader v implied reader
empirical v model
flesh & blood v idea/pretend
audience v spectator/viewer
Address is plural and shifting
one text will often be the site of competing modes of address
TV is typified predominantly by an enunciative regime of direct address
Emile Benveniste (1902-1976)
discourse : direct (1st/2nd person) i you we
histoire : indirect (3rd person) he she it
works to personalised TV & its discourse
establish an intimate discursive exchange "para-social interaction" (virtual interaction)
illusion of interpersonal relationship or "simulated domestic conversation"
TV creates the illusion waa they are trying to communicate with us personally
talking ppl & domestic props, half circles shit
Cult of Domesticated "Personalities"
-ความเข้าถึงได้, ธรรมดาสามัญ ordinary
-endows TV with a strong degree of familiarity, credibility & dependability
Tv claims to social & discursive authority are grounded in its domestic ordinariness & regularity
---> provide sense of dependability that "guide us through"
TV discursive authority is further endorsed by its "liveness"
TV foster sense of immediacy: coming to us direct & unmediated, in "real time"
Helps create a sense of community or shared identification structure of discursive "we-don"
Address as mechanism of ideology = Louise Althusser (1918-1990)
ideology = imagery relation : real relation
the process by which ideology constitute subjectivity (identity) through address
all ideology hails/interpellates concrete individual as concrete subject
individual => subject
TV address us through - thus interpellaltes us - into ideological categories
such as: -the family (nuclear, heterosexual, bourgeois
nation as "imagined community"
discursive & mediated fiction of social identity
-national interpellation: language, food, clothes, education, ritual
Mass Media: a vital site & agent of national interpellation
Today: TV = central mediu mof nationalism
addressing us as member of national public
provides ritual of communal national identification
The Public Sphere
the realm of public discourse and debate in which citizens can discuss issues of common concern in a free and democratic manner
structural transformation of the public sphere
-rise of new liberal public sphere with modernity
-separate from state & church
-arena for free political debate
-vital agency of liberal deliberative democracy
-manifest in C18th - C19th in coffee houses, salons, town meetings, etc.
-linked to rise of mass print media
historically, the public sphere has become increasingly "mediated"
today the public sphere is a wholly discursive construct
TV produce & reproduce a range of public sphere and identities
Broadcasting --> narrowcasting
Network --> multichanneling
unity --> fragmentation
consensus --> difference
To work effectively, the Public Sphere has to possess core qualities:
-freedom of information & access
-free from outside inteference & control
-diversity of viewpoints & equal representation
-space for civil discussion & debate